About Common Carp
The common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia. The native wild populations are considered vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), but the species has also been domesticated and introduced (see aquaculture) into environments worldwide, and is often considered a destructive invasive species, being included in the list of the world’s 100 worst invasive species. It gives its name to the carp family, Cyprinidae.
The two subspecies are:
- C. c. carpio is native to much of Europe (notably the Danube and Volga Rivers).
- C. c. yilmaz (Deniz carp) is from Anatolian Turkey (notably around Çorum).
A third subspecies, C. c. haematopterus (Amur carp) native to eastern Asia, was recognized in the past, but recent authorities treat it as a separate species under the name C. rubrofuscus. The common carp and various Asian relatives in the pure forms can be separated by meristics and also differ in genetics, but they are able to interbreed. Common carp can also interbreed with the goldfish (Carassius auratus); the result is called Kollar carp
The common carp is native to Europe and Asia and has been introduced to every part of the world except the poles. They are the third most frequently introduced (fish) species worldwide, and their history as farmed fish dates back to Roman times. Carp are used as food in many areas but are also regarded as a pest in several regions due to their ability to out-compete native fish stocks. The original common carp was found in the inland delta of the Danube River about 2000 years ago and was torpedo-shaped and golden-yellow in colour. It had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Although this fish was initially kept as an exploited captive, it was later maintained in large, specially built ponds by the Romans in south-central Europe (verified by the discovery of common carp remains in excavated settlements in the Danube delta area). As aquaculture became a profitable branch of agriculture, efforts were made to farm the animals, and the culture systems soon included spawning and growing ponds. The common carp’s native range also extends to the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea.